إعـــــــلان

تقليص
لا يوجد إعلان حتى الآن.

مرض عضال ليس له اسباب

تقليص
X
  • تصفية - فلترة
  • الوقت
  • عرض
إلغاء تحديد الكل
مشاركات جديدة

  • مرض عضال ليس له اسباب

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    (Lupus)


    Definition

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (or lupus) is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of joints, tendons, skin, and other connective tissues and organs. It causes the immune system to produce antibodies that attack the body's healthy cells and tissues.
    Causes



    The cause of lupus is unknown. Researchers believe it is caused by a combination of:
    • Genetic factors
    • Environmental factors, which may include:
      • Sunlight (UV rays)
      • Stress
    • Viral or other type of infection
    • Drug-induced (methyldopa, procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid, chlorpromazine, TNF blocking drugs)

    Risk Factors

    A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.


    Risk factors for lupus include:
    • ---: female to male ratio: 10:1
    • Age: childbearing age (20-45 years)
    • Race: African American, Native American, Asian, and Hispanic

    Symptoms

    The symptoms of lupus vary from mild to extremely severe and debilitating. In some patients, only part of the body (for example, the skin) is affected. In others, many parts of the body are affected. Though symptoms of lupus can be chronic, they usually flare up and subside intermittently.


    Common symptoms include:
    • Swollen and/or painful joints
    • Fever
    • Skin rashes over areas exposed to sunlight (especially on the nose and cheeks)
    • Extreme fatigue


    Butterfly Rash on the Face
    Copyright © 2005 Nucleus Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. www.nucleusinc.com




    Other symptoms of lupus may include:
    • Hair loss
    • Chest pain, coughing up blood, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing
    • Kidney inflammation
    • Anemia or other blood disorders
    • Sensitivity to sunlight
    • Ulcers in nose or mouth
    • Swollen glands
    • Headaches
    • Dizziness
    • Seizures
    • Inflammation of the heart, heart vessels, or membrane surrounding the heart
    • Blood clots
    Diagnosis

    The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical/family history, and perform a physical exam. The diagnosis of lupus is usually made on the basis of symptoms, especially if they appear in young women. No single test can determine if you have lupus. But a number of blood tests for specific antibodies can help confirm a diagnosis of lupus.
    Treatment

    Treatment of lupus depends on your specific symptoms.
    Medication



    Medications for mild symptoms of lupus include:
    • Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve joint pain
    • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) to relieve joint pain
    • Hydroxychloroqiuine or choloroquine to relieve joint pain, fatigue, balding, and skin rashes (Note: regular eye exams are advised while on these medications)
    • Topical corticosteroids for skin rashes


    Medications for severe symptoms of lupus include:
    • Oral and intravenously administered corticosteroids to control and limit inflammation in kidney, brain, lung, heart as well as in severe anemia
    • Immunosuppressive drugs to suppress the body's autoimmune system
    • Mycophenolate and cyclophosphamide for kidney disease or other life- or organ-threatening manifestations
    • Rituximab for refractory disease
    Transplantation and Dialysis

    If you have end stage kidney failure, transplantation and dialysis are options to consider.
    Prevention

    There are no guidelines for preventing lupus because the cause is unknown.


    To prevent flare-ups of symptoms:
    • Develop a long-term relationship with your doctor and schedule regular check-ups.
    • Treat any and all infections quickly and vigorously.
    • Avoid sun exposure and wear sunscreen and protective clothing when outdoors.
    • Eat a healthful diet, one that is low in saturated fat and rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
    • Limit emotional stress.
    • Get adequate rest.
    • Exercise moderately (as much as your condition allows), with your doctor's permission.
    • Contact your doctor if you think a flare-up is imminent.
    • Avoid oral contraceptives especially if you have kidney involvement.
يعمل...
X